Category Archives: Senior Research

Delta E (CIE 1976)

The Equation

The color difference, or ΔE, between two colors: L1a1b1 and L2a2b2 is:

Equation 1

A Definition reports Delta-E (dE) is a single number that represents the ‘distance’ between two colors.

An Illustration

1931 CIExy Chromaticity Diagram

Statement of the Problem

When I conceived this idea, I had just brushed the surface of color knowledge.  I soon found out that few spectrophotometers or colorimeters capture the colorimerty data from the emitted light on a display device.  Display characterization devices, such as the X-Rite i1 measures the light to calibrate, but provide no numerical color data. Such devices do not output the spectral data. After many inquiries to X-Rite and waiting for the engineers to return my call, I finally got an answer about SpectraShop 4, software program that would not only measure, but provide a report of measured colormertic data. SpectraShop 4 is a great piece of software. I think that it has great potential for future use of color measurement needs.

This study has practical application for mobile device manufacturers. Creators of content for mobile devices would be the other group of people who would benefit from this research as users of the content. The industry needs to educate the consumers who might make important color decisions using a mobile device that does not accurately reproduction the original image’s color correctly.

The problem is a current issue that needs to be solved. The population affected is overall is huge and includes all countries that have mobile devices. People who own smart phone are usually innovators and influence others. This is important to understand because the mobile device market is only going to increase. Industries that will be effected include graphic design, publishing, medical testing, food quality and most sciences. Anyone who makes a decision based on color from a mobile device would benefit from the finding and conclusions of this study.

This study’s problem stems from the relationship of the mobile display’s technology and how this technology accurately renders color. The dependent variable is control image. The causal or independent variable is the sample of current mobile devices and is responsible for the change in problem variable. The control image is a function of the mobile device and the differences will be examined. If there is a change in causal variable (as a change in device), then there is an expected change in the problem variable.


Fall Publication

The Fall 2013 edition of Visual Communications Journal will include my research; which is entitled
Is Color Displayed Accurately on Current Mobile Device Displays? The journal is published by the International Graphic Arts Education Association (IGAEA) and will be available in November.
Thanks to all those who proofed my outputs, listened to my whine and those who influenced me without them knowing.
Also my son, Nic took the photo below and will get his by-line….

Presenting My Digital Media Senior Research Poster

Is Color Displayed Accurately on Current Mobile Device Displays?


This study addresses the accuracy of colors rendered on contemporary mobile device displays. The colors of a test image were assessed using an X-Rite i1 Pro spectrophotometer on different mobile device displays. The emissive spectral data was collected in SpectraShop 4 software and analyzed using the CIE L*a*b* color model. The assessment of the color difference between the control image and the rendered colors were calculated using the Delta E (∆E). This color model is device- and illuminant-independent and is the most used for measuring color. The devices sampled included seven smart phones and four tablets manufactured by Apple, Samsung, Nokia, HTC, and Microsoft. The technologies used in these devices include LED, Super AMOLED, Super LCD 2, and LCD devices. The key finding was rendering of color on mobile device display is poor. This research proves that mobile displays need to incorporate color management technology. The industry leadership needs to set standards and keep up with the changing technology.

Keywords: mobile device displays, spectral data, spectrophotometer, CIE L*a*b, Delta E (ΔE)


This is the poster printing on the plotter.


This is my poster for my senior research. I presented it a the Undergraduate Spring Showcase.

TV Ad - Spring Research Day

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